Article Abstract

Prevalence and predictive factors for heart failure among Sudanese individuals with diabetes: Population based survey

Authors: Ahmed O. Almobarak, Heitham Awadalla, Mugtaba Osman, Mohamed H. Ahmed


Background: Heart failure (HF) is common problem in primary care and one of the leading causes of recurrent hospital admission across the globe. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of HF in Sudanese individuals with diabetes.
Methods: This was cross sectional study with 315 participants conducted in Khartoum, Sudan. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information. In addition to measurement of blood pressure, lipid profile and HbA1c, weight and height measurement for calculation of body mass index.
Results: Among the 315 respondents, male representation in the sample was 184 (59.3%) and only 25 (13.5%) of them has heart failure (HF) while female were 131 (40.7%) and 13 (9.9%) has HF. Therefore the prevalence of HF was 12.06%. The unadjusted risk factors for HF were hypertension and cholesterol level (P value of 0.001 and 0.015 respectively). The presence of retinopathy, albuminuria, duration of diabetes and neuropathy were not associated with HF. In addition, parameters like age, sex, HbA1c, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride and low density cholesterol (LDL) are also not associated with heart failure. Importantly, hypertension was the only absolute risk factor for HF (P=0.001467).
Conclusions: The prevalence of HF is estimated to be 12.06%. The risk factors are hypertension and high cholesterol. Hypertension was an absolute risk factor for HF. Therefore, further planning and strategies by health authorities in Sudan are needed to prevent, treat and manage hypertension in individuals with diabetes.