Particulate matter components and health: a literature review on exposure assessment
A number of studies have provided evidence on the association between particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects. However, PM is a mix of heterogeneous composition that varies greatly by season and region. Epidemiological studies rely primarily on spatial variation of the air pollutants to estimate the associations between exposure to air pollutants and health effects. Since PM components exhibit a great deal of spatial variability, additional monitoring campaign and more refined exposure models are still needed. To our knowledge, the exposure assessment methods for PM components in epidemiological studies haven’t been reviewed. Hence, in this review, we summarize several exposure assessment methods which have been applied in estimating the associations between PM components and adverse health effects in epidemiological studies. Many concerns have been accumulated on the potential health effects of PM components with very little evidence focusing on the exposure assessment of PM components in living and work place. Thus, it is quite important to develop exposure models that cover both outdoor and indoor environments for PM components.